Flint dagger uncovered at Catal Huyuk, Turkey, circa 6000 BC.
Flint dagger uncovered at Catal Huyuk, Turkey, circa 6000 BC.
The knowth mace head
A Flint mace uncovered from the knowth burial site in Ireland. Dated 3200-2800 BC
Meayll Hill (Mull Hill) is not a true stone circle, but a unique
group of Neolithic chambered tombs built around 3500 BC.
These tombs are characteristic for Neolithic farmers in the
British Isles, but the arrangement of 12 of them in ring formation is
very unusual and no one knows why they were arranged this way. A group
of stone foundations of Neolithic huts can be found nearby to the east with an ancient pathway running between the two
According to local lore, some visitors have had unpleasant
paranormal experiences at Meayll Hill, including the feeling of sudden
disorientation. Others have seen unexplained moving lights and heard
strange sounds, like the cadence of invisible horses trotting or
galloping by. One tale says that a phantom army of horsemen has been
seen riding along the circle.
The site is located just outside the village of Cregneash at the southern end of the Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea between England and Ireland.
Click here to aerial video of Meayll Hill.
This limestone dolmen is located just south of La Chapelle-Vendômoise in the Loir-et-Cher department in central France. It is a classic Angevin dolmen, which face east and have a lowered anteroom (portico) leading to a larger room. It is thought to date as far back as the Neolithic period and is still in nearly complete condition.
This dolmen is part of a group of megalithic monuments found near the village of Wéris, in the province of Luxembourg, Belgium. The megalithic remains at Wéris are scattered over a region more than 5 miles (8 km) long, and form a group which is unique in Belgium. There are many standing stones (menhirs), including one beside the road just southwest of Wéris. Of the many chamber tombs (dolmens) which once existed in the area, two now survive in good condition. These remains generally date to around 3000 BC, a time period which corresponds to that of the Seine-Oise-Marne culture.
The Cromlech of the Almendres (Cromeleque dos Almendres) is a megalithic complex located near the village of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, in the civil parish of Nossa Senhora da Tourega e Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, municipality of Évora, in the Portuguese Alentejo. This is the largest existing group of structured menhirs in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the largest in Europe. The site consists of several structures including cromlechs (stone circles) and menhir (standing stones), that belong to the so-called “megalithic universe of Évora,” with clear parallels to other cromlechs in Portela Mogos (in Montemor-o-Novo). The construction of these structures date back to the 6th millennium BC.
The excavation of the site unearthed a series of construction phases; Almendres I 6000 BC (Early Neolithic), Almendres II 5000 BC (Middle Neolithic), Almendres III 4000 BC (Late Neolithic). The relative chronology of the cromlech and menhirs is extremely complex and covers a period from the Neolithic to Chalcolithic, and it is believed that the monument had a religious/ceremonial purpose, or functioned as a primitive astronomical observatory.
Trethevy Quoit is a well-preserved Neolithic dolmen tomb, known locally as ‘The Giant’s House,’ located between St. Cleer and Darite in Cornwall, England. It was erected during the Neolithic period between 3700-3500 BC. Like other portal tombs of this type, Trethevy Quoit was originally covered by a mound. At the upper end of the cover slab is a natural hole, which may have been used for astronomical observation.
The Xerez Cromlech (Cromeleque do Xerez) is a megalithic structure of standing stones (menhir) around one central stone. The site has been reconstructed since the stones had to be moved to keep them from being submerged by the Alqueva reservoir. They have been placed in a quadrangular shape instead of a circle, which is unusual. Construction is estimated to have taken place sometime between the early 4th to mid-3rd millennium BC. The site is located near Monsaraz, Portugal.
Monte d’Accoddi is a Neolithic site in northern Sardinia, located in the territory of Sassari near Porto Torres. The site consists of a massive raised stone platform thought to have been an altar. It was constructed by the Ozieri culture or earlier, with the oldest parts dated to around 4,000 to 3,650 BC. No chambers or entrances to the mound have been found, leading to the presumption it was an altar, a temple or a step pyramid. It may have also served an observational function, as its square plan is coordinated with the cardinal points of the compass.
The initial Ozieri structure was abandoned or destroyed around 3000 BC, with traces of fire found in the archeological evidence. Around 2800 BC the remains of the original structure were completely covered with a layered mixture of earth and stone, and large blocks of limestone were then applied to establish a second platform, truncated by a step pyramid, accessible by means of a second ramp built over the older one. This second temple resembles contemporary Mesopotamian ziggurats, and is attributed to the Abealzu-Filigosa culture. Archeological excavations from the chalcolithic Abealzu-Filigosa layers indicate the Monte d’Accoddi was used for animal sacrifice, with the remains of sheep, cattle, and swine recovered in near equal proportions. It is among the earliest known sacrificial sites in Western Europe, providing insight into the development of ritual in prehistoric society. The site appears to have been abandoned again around 1800 BC, at the onset of the Nuragic age.
The D45 hunebed is located in the Emmerdennen, a forest area in the city of Emmen in the Dutch province of Drenthe. Hunebedden are chamber tombs, similar to dolmens and date to the middle Neolithic (Funnelbeaker culture, 4th millennium BC). A local legend says that Napoleon’s horse left its hoof prints in the hunebed when Napoleon and his horse stood upon it. This same legend is told about other hunebedden in the area, along with many other folk tales.